Mô hình 7S xuất hiện lần đầu tiên trong cuốn sách bán chạy nhất năm 1981, Nghệ thuật quản lý Nhật Bản: Ứng dụng cho kinh doanh kiểu Mỹ, được viết bởi giáo sư Richard Pascale của Stanford và giáo sư Anthony Athos của Harvard. Động lực để viết cuốn sách này là để tìm hiểu điều gì đã làm cho các công ty Nhật Bản thành công như vậy.

Gần như cùng lúc, Thomas J. Peters và Robert H. Waterman, Jr., hai chuyên gia quản lý của Đại học Stanford và là nhân viên lâu năm của McKinsey & Company nổi tiếng, đã phỏng vấn 62 trong số các công ty lớn lâu đời nhất và tốt nhất ở Hoa Kỳ và chọn ra. 43 dựa trên khả năng sinh lời và tốc độ tăng trưởng. năm 1978, bốn tác giả này đã cùng nhau đề xuất mô hình 7S.

Mô hình này sau đó đã xuất hiện trong cuốn sách bán chạy nhất của Peters và Waterman, The Pursuit of Excellence: Bài học từ những công ty thành công nhất của Mỹ, và trở thành công cụ tư vấn quản lý cơ bản của McKinsey & Company, công ty tư vấn quản lý hàng đầu thế giới. Kể từ đó, mô hình 7S đã trở nên nổi tiếng và phổ biến rộng rãi.


Mô hình McKinsey 7S là gì?

Mô hình McKinsey 7S (còn được gọi tắt là Mô hình 7S) là bảy yếu tố của một tổ chức kinh doanh được thiết kế bởi Trung tâm Nghiên cứu Công ty & McKinsey, trong đó tuyên bố rằng các công ty phải xem xét tất cả các khía cạnh của quá trình phát triển một cách toàn diện, bao gồm cả cấu trúc, hệ thống, phong cách, nhân viên, kỹ năng, chiến lược và các giá trị được chia sẻ – bảy kỹ năng, chiến lược và giá trị được chia sẻ.

Templat Kerangka Kerja McKinsey 7S: Templat Model McKinsey 7S (Dibuat oleh pembuat Kerangka Kerja McKinsey 7S Visual Paradigm Online)

In this model, strategy, structure and systems are considered the “hardware” for business success, while style, people, skills and shared values are considered the “software” for successful business operations. McKinsey’s 7S model reminds managers around the world that software and hardware are equally important.


Strategy is the overall planning of the enterprise’s development goals, ways and means to achieve them, based on the internal and external environment and available resources, in order to survive and develop stably in the long term, and it is the centralized embodiment of the enterprise’s management ideology, the result of a series of strategic decisions, and the basis for the formulation of enterprise plans and programs.


Strategy requires a sound organizational structure to ensure implementation. Organizational structure is the basis on which the organizational meaning and mechanism of the enterprise survive. It is the composition form of the enterprise organization, i.e., the effective arrangement and combination of organizational elements such as objectives, synergy, personnel, positions, interrelationships and information. It is the decomposition of the enterprise’s goals and tasks into positions, and then the integration of positions into departments, and the formation of an organic whole of a vertical system of rights and horizontal system of division of labor and collaboration by numerous departments. Organizational structure is for strategy implementation, different strategies need different organizational structure to correspond with it, and organizational structure must be coordinated with strategy.


The development and strategy implementation of the enterprise need a perfect system as a guarantee, and in fact the system is the specific embodiment of the enterprise spirit and strategic thinking. Therefore, in the process of strategy implementation, a system consistent with strategic thinking should be developed to prevent mismatches and inconsistencies in the system, and to avoid the emergence of systems that deviate from the strategy. Such as the innovative spirit of 3M’s innovation system, in 3M, a person who participates in the development of new product innovation business, his position and salary in the company will naturally change with the achievements of the product, even if he started as a production line engineer, if the product hits the market, he can be promoted to product engineer, and if the annual sales of the product reaches five million dollars, he can become Product Line Manager. This system greatly motivates employees to innovate and promotes the development of the company.


Outstanding companies exhibit a loose and strict management style that is both centralized and decentralized, giving extreme autonomy to the production and product development departments, while stubbornly adhering to a few long-standing values. In a strong systematic organization, employees are considered according to the overall statistical concept of the company and not as individual personalities.


One of the key principles of IBM is to respect individuals and spend a lot of time implementing this principle. This is because they believe that employees, regardless of their position, are the source of effectiveness. Therefore, while making good organizational design, enterprises should pay attention to equipping the workforce that meets the needs of strategic thinking, training them well, assigning them appropriate jobs, and strengthening publicity and education so that personnel at all levels of the enterprise can establish an ideology and work style that is compatible with the strategy of the enterprise.


In implementing the company’s strategy, employees need to acquire certain skills, which depend on rigorous and systematic training. Konosuke Matsushita believes that everyone must undergo rigorous training in order to become an excellent person, such as the athletes who gallop on the sports field to show their skills, but their amazing physique and skills do not come out of thin air, but are the result of long-term physical and mental rigorous training. Without training, a person may have no way to perform even if he or she has very good natural qualifications.

Therefore, in the process of business development, the overall situation of the company should be considered comprehensively, and the company can only be successful if the 7 elements, both hard and soft, can communicate and coordinate well.

Shared values

Corporate values are the fundamental meaning of a company’s existence and should be the fundamental motive and driving force for the operation of its own economic system. Values have the role of guidance, restraint, cohesion, motivation and radiation. Scientific incentives can stimulate the enthusiasm of all employees, unify the will and desire of enterprise members, and work together to achieve the strategic goals of the enterprise. This requires a study of the common values of the enterprise, whether the values are understood and shared by all members of the enterprise and used as principles of action. Whether there is a consensus between the whole enterprise and whether there is a deviation between the concept and behavior.


Infographic Design Tool for 7S Model

The McKinsey 7S model is a framework for organizational effectiveness that assumes that the seven internal elements of an organization must be aligned and strengthened in order to be successful. These seven elements all begin with the letter S, hence the model’s name, the McKinsey 7S Framework. Visual Paradigm features an intuitive chart editor and a rich set of McKinsey 7S templates to support your presentation needs.